Berry Bulletin June 15

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June 15, 2018

Strawberries: June-bearing harvest is in full swing in southern and south-western Ontario, and close behind in the rest of the province; pick-your-own operations are open this weekend or opening next week. We seem to have caught up from the late spring.

Day-neutral harvest continues for overwintering fields. New plantings are starting to produce runners, which should be removed.

Cyclamen Mites: cyclamen mite damage is a common sight in June bearing fields this summer. Make sure you are checking your fields for damage and pinching out new, unexpanded leaves to look for mites and egg masses. The egg masses will look like piles of salt at the base of the leaflet. I have seen mites on the back of leaves in severe infestations. Check both first year bearing fields and older fields. If you are seeing:

  • reduced growth and low vigour,
  • short, stunted plants,
  • small and bronzed fruit,
  • Wrinkled, distorted and toughened leaves

This could be cyclamen mite damage. Prepare to control cyclamen mite after renovation, or later this summer in August or September. Agri-mek SC and Vegol Crop Oil are registered for cyclamen mite control. Check last week’s bulletin for more information on the life cycle and management of cyclamen mite. Remember to work and harvest in clean, new fields first before moving to older, infested fields.

Two spotted spider mites (TSSM):  TSSM prefer these hot and dry conditions, and continue to be a problem in some fields. Continue to monitor June-bearing and day-neutral fields by checking middle-aged leaves for mites. There are a number of products available for TSSM management at the green fruit stage. Check page 180 of Publication 360, Fruit Crop Protection Guide for a list of products. Agri-mek is available for 2 uses each season, so if you are hoping to use Agri-mek for both cyclamen mite and TSSM, wait until renovation for better efficacy on cyclamen mite.

Strawberry Aphids: populations are building up and winged aphids can be found in fields where an aphicide hasn’t been applied lately. This is the stage we are trying to control to prevent aphids from flying to new fields.

  • Monitor for aphids during and after harvest.
  • Don’t let populations build above 15 aphids on 60 leaves.
  • Control aphids in new and fruiting fields.

Tarnished plant bugs (TPB): Continue to scout for TPB in late varieties like Valley Sunset and Malwina that are still susceptible. Remember the threshold for TPB is approximately 1 nymph per 4 flower clusters.

  • Be careful using group 3s (Matador, Mako, Ripcord) as these may lead to a mite outbreak.

Potato leaf hopper (PLH): damage can be seen in a few strawberry fields. Check new leaves for leaf curl and yellowing, and the underside of the leaves for PLH nymphs.

Anthracnose and botrytis: Anthracnose and botrytis has started to show up in June-bearing fields, likely from the very hot weather we had a couple weeks ago.  Continue to include group M fungicides (captan, Maestro, Granuflo-T) and rotate between fungicide groups in your disease management program for botrytis and anthracnose.

Blueberries: Berries continue to ripen and the crop is looking good.

This is an important time to control cranberry and cherry fruitworm. Cranberry and cherry fruitworm sprays have been applied in some fields.  Re-apply in 7-14 days if trap capture continue.

Raspberries: summer-fruiting raspberries are setting fruit in southern Ontario. Bloom continues in central and eastern Ontario. Rust has been found on blackberries and black raspberries.

Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD):. Traps are set up at 15 sites across the province. Stay tuned to the blog and the berry bulletin for updates on what we are finding and different management practices.

  • The first SWD was trapped the week of June 4, in a cherry orchard in Norfolk County.
  • So far this week NO SWD has been trapped.

It is normal to find the first catch followed by a gap before finding an established population. Remember sprays are necessary when SWD is present in your area and there is ripe fruit. SWD will not infest unripe berries. Growers in southwestern Ontario and Niagara should monitor their strawberries closely, as these are one of the only crop hosts available at this time. If there is unpicked day-neutral fields make sure to remove the fruit if possible, to prevent an SWD population from establishing in the field.

Remember that managing SWD is a combination of strategies, which can begin before SWD becomes established. Pick as thoroughly as possible and cool fruit as quickly as possible post-harvest.

Emergency Use Registrations are in place this year for SWD management:

Mako (group 3), for suppression, and Malathion 85 E (group 1B) are registered for SWD, valid until November 2018.

Registered Products Crops
Imidan 70 WP Blueberries
Exirel Blueberries, raspberries
Success Blueberries, raspberries, strawberries
Delegate Blueberries, raspberries, strawberries
Entrust Blueberries, raspberries, strawberries
Mako (emergency registration valid to November 2018). For suppression only. Strawberries, raspberries
Malathion 85 E (Emergency registration valid to November 2018). Blueberries, raspberries, strawberries.

 

Check the ONfruit blog and Ontario.ca/spottedwing for rates, PHI, REI and maximum applications.

New pest control products are available for berry growers. Check out this blog post for new products and uses this season. This post includes an update on products from October 2017 to April 2018. Use this in addition to the 2018-2019 version of Publication 360, Fruit Crop Protection Guide.

Twitter: Follow me on twitter @PateErica and our ONfruit blog for regular updates and berry information.

 

 

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June 8th Berry Bulletin

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Berry Bulletin June 8 PDF

June 8, 2018

Continue reading

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Apple Update: June 8th, 2018

This post written by: Amanda Green, Tree Fruit Specialist, OMAFRA and Colleen Haskins, Acting Horticulture IPM Specialist, OMAFRA

The OMAFRA Apple Team will be providing crop updates reported from across the province, including growth stages, production, weather-related impacts, pest status and other issues affecting Ontario growers at the time. Continue following ONfruit for up to date crop information.

In this update:

  • crop stages
  • thinning
  • diseases
  • pest activity

Crop Stages

Fruitlet stages range from 8 to 20 mm, with Georgian Bay area having smaller fruitlets and Niagara and Essex having larger fruitlets. Size also varies from variety to variety and proximity to a body of water.

Most areas are reporting Continue reading

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New Products and Uses for Berry Growers in 2018

New fungicides and insecticides are available for berry growers this season. Diplomat 5SC is a new fungicide registered in Ontario. Kopa, Fracture and Tivano have had label and use changes.

Continue reading

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June 1 Berry Bulletin

This week’s berry bulletin includes:

-crop updates

-cyclamen mite management

-strawberry disease management

-blueberry and raspberry update

Continue reading

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Calyx End Rot in Apples

Michael Celetti, OMAFRA Plant Pathologists – Horticulture Crops

Several apple growers and consultants have noticed developing apples fruitlet with petals remaining attached. These delicate petals can be a source of tissue and avenue for infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum which causes the disease calyx end rot. The pathogen causes the disease ‘White mold’ in many crops such as carrots, lettuce, beans, canola, potatoes, tomatoes and has a very large host range including many common weeds such as dandelion.

The pathogen produces a persistent resting structure called a ‘sclerotia’ that can last in soil for many years. Sclerotia that are near or at the surface of soil in orchards germinate under wet conditions to produce tiny funnel shaped mushroom-like structures called ‘apothecia’. The tiny apothecia produce and ejected spores that infect the delicate senescent flower petals. Fortunately the spores cannot infect the fruit directly. Once the flower petals become infected and colonized, the fungus grows from the infected petals into the developing fruit. Therefore fruitlets with petals still attached are more vulnerable to infection.

Symptoms of calyx end rot on a developing apple fruit
Figure 1. Symptoms of calyx end rot on a developing apple fruit

The best time to scout for symptoms of this disease is in mid–late June or early July. Calyx end rot first appears as a slightly sunken circular tan brown to grey lesion around the calyx of developing fruit. The lesions are dry for most of the season unless secondary pathogens such as bacteria enter through the wound. As the lesion expands they tend to grow in one direction, appearing slightly off centre from the calyx and may be surrounded by a dark border and/or a red halo (Figure 1). Symptoms of calyx end rot can be confused with dry eye rot caused by Botrytis cineria, which tends to occur later in the season, or sometimes with black rot infections at the calyx end of the fruit. Infected fruit eventually crack and the hard black sclerotia develop in the cracks. After the fruit rots, the sclerotia are released where they can remain in or on the soil of the orchard floor for several years.

Successful disease management depends on the weather and reducing alternative hosts and manipulating the environmental conditions that favour sclerotia germination. It takes several days of wet soil conditions and temperatures above 11-15oC for sclerotia to germinate and produce apothecia. If soil conditions are too dry, the sclerotia will not germinated but remain dormant until conditions become conducive for germination. In other susceptible crops such as carrots, researchers discovered that trimming the carrot leaves to open up the canopy and allow the soil conditions to dry out quickly after a rain, resulted in significantly fewer sclerotia germinating, less spores being produced and significantly less disease. In fact, the research has led to the development of new equipment designed specifically for trimming carrot leaves between rows to open the canopy and reduce sclerotia germination. Trimming leaves at row closure is now a standard recommendation for white mold management in carrots. The same principle can be applied to apple orchards with tall grass or even worse, dandelion infested lane ways. Keeping the grass and particularly dandelions cut short will allow the soil to dry quickly and reduce the environmental conditions required for sclerotia to germination, resulting in less infection of petals. Since dandelions and other broad leaf weeds are hosts of this pathogen, good broadleaf weed control in the orchard will also prevent the build up of sclerotia population in the orchard.

There are no fungicides registered in Ontario specifically for the control of calyx end rot on apples, however, some of the new group 7 fungicides available for powdery mildew and scab control may also protect petals from Sclerotinia infection. As with any fungicide, application must occur prior to infection for best results. Infected fruit should be hand thinned and removed from the orchard since throwing infected fruit onto the orchard floor will result in more inoculum for future years.

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Apple Thinning and PGR Update

A full apple update will be coming soon. This update will be on thinning and growth control with apogee.  Continue reading

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